Developmental disorders usually referred to as childhood disorders, are a group of issues marked by deficiencies in the physical, intellectual, linguistic, or behavioral domains. These illnesses typically manifest throughout childhood, affect daily functioning, and typically last the entirety of a person’s life.
Due to the kind and severity of brain malfunction, the majority of children with developmental impairments frequently experience impairment in several functional domains. If you think your child is not meeting typical age milestones or if you think there may be a problem with the way your child plays, learns, speaks, acts, or moves, consult a paediatrician. Early intervention can benefit from early action and have a big impact.
Mental retardation and specific learning impairments in children are examples of cognitive disabilities. A person with mental retardation is defined as having IQ that is below average and impaired adaptive behavior. It is well established that mild mental impairment limits a child’s academic achievement, whereas multiple disabilities result in grades that are more severe.
Walking and upper-extremity use are two areas where people with motor impairments experience limits (hands or arms). Some motor impairment also has an impact on a child’s speech and ability to swallow. Severity ranges from slight to severe. Cerebral palsy, congenital abnormalities, or progressive disorders like muscular dystrophies and spinal muscular atrophy are examples of motor difficulties that are identified.
Speech, vision, and hearing disabilities
A lot of visual and hearing disabilities start developing early in infancy. The capacity to hear and repeat sounds is a prerequisite for speaking. The first two years of life are the best time for learning to speak; any additional delay may be a sign of speech impairment. Early hearing and speech screening for young children is advised, as is an assessment of any potential problems.
In developing nations, it is more common for children with psychiatric or behavioral disorders to go undetected or untreated. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, depression, and anxiety disorders are a few examples of behavioral illnesses that require more research. If untreated, these illnesses can have a severe effect on the child’s overall development.
Types of Developmental Disorders
Developmental problems in children are occasionally diagnosed at birth, but they are typically not clearly visible until the ages of three to six. Depending on the symptoms, they might be moderate to severe. The following are some of the most prevalent developmental disabilities:
- Autism: A neurodevelopmental disease known as autism, it is marked by severe impairments in communication and reciprocal social skills, as well as the existence of confined and stereotypical behaviors.
- ADHD: Inattention and disorganization, either with or without hyperactivity-impulsivity, are symptoms of ADHA, a neurodevelopmental disease that impairs functioning.
- Cerebral palsy: The cerebral palsy spectrum of disorders affects posture, muscle tone, and movement. Injury to the developing, immature brain causes it, most usually before birth.
- Down syndrome: Incorrect cell division results in the production of a second entire or partial copy of chromosome 21, which causes the genetic disorder known as Down syndrome. Depending on how severe the condition is. Individuals may experience developmental delays and lifelong intellectual disabilities as a result.
- Fragile X syndrome: The genetic disorder fragile X syndrome (FXS), which affects children and causes intellectual and developmental problems, is inherited from parents.
- Genetic disorders: A chromosomal disease may be sporadic, which means there is no known family history, or it may be inherited.
- Spina bifida: Spina bifida is a disorder of the spine that is typically visible from birth. It is a particular kind of neural tube disorder (NTD) that damages the spinal cord and nerves.
- Muscular Dystrophy: Muscle loss and weakening occur gradually as a result of a group of diseases known as muscular dystrophy. In muscular dystrophy, faulty genes (mutations) prevent the muscles’ ability to produce the necessary proteins.
- Velocardiofacial syndrome: A complicated disease called VCFS has been linked to more than 30 different traits, such as distinct facial features, heart problems, palate defects, and learning impairments.
- Intellectual disability: A widespread illness known as intellectual impairment is characterized by profoundly reduced cognitive performance and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors.
Developmental Disorders: Risk factors
Developmental disorders are conditions that affect a child’s physical, cognitive, and behavioral development. These conditions can significantly affect a child’s capacity for learning, communication, and social interaction. Despite the fact that the precise causes of developmental problems are frequently unknown, a number of risk factors have been discovered.
One of the most significant risk factors for developmental disorders is genetics. Research has shown that certain genetic mutations and variations can increase the risk of developmental disorders. For example, children with certain gene mutations are more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder. In addition, certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome, are associated with a higher risk of developmental disorders.
Prenatal exposure to harmful substances
Developmental abnormalities are also more likely to occur when dangerous substances like alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics are exposed during pregnancy. For instance, drinking alcohol while pregnant might result in foetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which can cause a variety of behavioral and developmental issues. Similarly, exposure to tobacco and drugs during pregnancy can also increase the risk of developmental disorders.
Premature birth and low birth weight
Developmental abnormalities are also at risk from preterm birth and low birth weight. Developmental delays and challenges are more likely to affect babies who are born prematurely or with low birth weight. This is due to the possibility that the brain and other organs were not fully grown prior to birth, which could result in long-term developmental issues.
Environmental factors such as poverty, poor nutrition, and lack of access to healthcare can also increase the risk of developmental disorders. Children who grow up in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays and difficulties because they may not have access to the resources and support they need for optimal development. Poor nutrition can also affect brain development, leading to long-term developmental problems.
Trauma and abuse
Trauma and abuse can also increase the risk of developmental disorders. Children who experience trauma or abuse, such as physical or sexual abuse, may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other psychological disorders that can affect their development. In addition, children who witness violence or experience other traumatic events may be at increased risk for developmental problems.
In conclusion, there are many risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developmental disorders. While some of these risk factors, such as genetics, are beyond our control, others, such as exposure to harmful substances, can be prevented. By identifying and addressing these risk factors, we can help children to achieve their full potential and reduce the impact of developmental disorders on their lives.
Treatment at Nasha Mukti Kendra
Highly skilled professionals who assist with childhood developmental disorders can be found at Nasha Mukti Kendra. Children are closely worked with by the therapists at Nasha Mukti Kendra to foster their general development and increase their level of independence. Our multidisciplinary staff from many areas strives to offer children with developmental difficulties top-notch all-inclusive care. The team includes some of the best physiotherapists and psychiatrists, as well as highly committed support workers, who work around the clock to ensure the well-being of the kids.